Legal instrument used for offenders to financially compensate for socio-environmental damages in the licensing of works and other projects.
The construction or renovation of highways, hydroelectric plants and other projects in various sectors generates impacts such as deforestation, pollution and the death of animals that may or may not be provided for in its environmental licensing. To balance these ecological and social damages, financial compensation is paid by entrepreneurs or offenders. The resources are mainly destined to the land title normalization of Conservation Units (UCs) with natural aspects similar to those of the impacted region, according to the Law of the National System of Conservation Units (Law 9,985/2000). Its destination at the federal level was defined by an Environmental Compensation Committee, whose operation was halted under the current administration. According to the 2012 federal forestry legislation, environmental compensation for illegally deforested legal reserves in rural properties can also be made through induced or natural recovery of native vegetation, or even by the compensation of the degraded area through lease, purchase of a share of environmental reserve or donation of an equivalent area to the government, provided that it is in the same biome.