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Indigenous Land

Union territories recognized and delimited by the federal government for the maintenance of the indigenous ways of life and culture throughout the country.

According to the Federal Constitution of 1988, Indigenous Lands are spaces historically occupied by indigenous populations, and which also serve their physical reproduction and maintenance of their culture. These traditionally occupied territories are assets of the Union with permanent possession and exclusive use of resources soil and waters belonging to indigenous populations. Their demarcation and administrative management are the responsibility of the federal Executive Branch, through the National Indian Foundation (FUNAI). The lands bequeathed to indigenous groups can be donated by third parties, as well as acquired or expropriated by the Union. Their establishment and maintenance are essential for the dignified survival of the 255 different indigenous groups of Brazil, which total around 900,000 people. There are 723 indigenous lands in the country, totaling 1,174,273.23 km² or almost 14% of the national territory. More than 98% of these areas are in the Legal Amazon. With the support of parts of Congress, the private sector, and Brazilian society, the Bolsonaro government encourages violence against indigenous and traditional populations, froze the demarcation of lands, and has fought to open them to conventional economic activities, such as mining, power generation, farming and oil extraction through PL 490.


r indigenous reserve, indigenous area, indigenous territory

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